Change – particularly difficult or contested change – needs a clear purpose if it is to stand any chance of acceptance. Why should I leave my comfy car at home and stand on a freezing railway station waiting for a delayed and crowded train? Why should I turn down the central heating in those parts of the house which the warmth from the multi-fuel stove doesn’t reach? Why shouldn’t I fully participate in the annual orgy of consumption that is Christmas?
The answer, of course, depends on whether you believe we can go on plundering the planet’s resources. Climate change deniers think we can, but they’re not looking at the evidence. The overwhelming consensus among people who know what they’re talking about is we need to change our consumption habits. But we need help.
Public authorities have generally been slow to promote innovation. That’s not surprising, even though depressing, because politicians are risk-averse. So we need new approaches to encouraging change.
Exeter City Futures is a new kid on the block. It’s a not-for-dividend community interest company, with a small staff of bright people . They are exploring options for making Exeter a sustainable city, starting from the premise that our current level of energy use is too high for the planet’s continued existence and that the level will increase by 50% unless we intervene to change things. Unlike large cities where turnaround times are going to be up to 50 years, Exeter is sufficiently small for ECF to believe that significant change can be achieved within 10 years.
Sensibly, ECF is not trying to do everything. At least initially, there is a focus on two goals for Exeter: to become energy-independent, in the sense of generating its own managed energy needs; and to reduce traffic congestion to zero. Because transport – or more accurately our mobility needs and urges – is a key driver of energy use (40% of the total according to ECF using government figures), and because it occupies a central place in spatial planning, that’s what this and some subsequent posts will discuss.
A key element of the ECF analysis is that we use our resources inefficiently. Congestion exists because there are too many private vehicles, which sit parked for much of the day doing nothing. The aim should be to design a system where all vehicles are in use all of the time moving people to their destinations. It’s worth recalling that the public sector railway industry spotted this decades ago: those of a certain age may recall railway sidings full of carriages that were only wheeled out at summer weekends for the extra traffic. Well before privatisation, the sidings became grass or houses or supermarkets, and the carriages were long gone to the breaker’s yard.
So the ECF approach is to develop carrots that will change social norms, so that – for example – owning your own car is seen as odd behaviour. This is where MaaS (Mobility as a Service) comes in. Taken to its full potential, you would buy a mobility package like you buy a mobile phone package. Depending on what you pay for, you could have public transport and/or private car journeys on tap, without having to own a car. It’s beginning to happen in Helsinki.
There are other approaches which don’t go the whole hog to MaaS. For example, driverless cars – which are legal in the UK, though not in most of the rest of Europe – enable you to spend driving time working or thinking or looking out of the window or talking to your partner. And the technology means that the hire car will come to you, saving that tedious journey to go and pick it up.
On air quality, electric vehicles have greatly improved. Affordable electric cars can hold a 100-mile charge, which would cover about 3 days of commuting in and out of Exeter.
Journey information is a mis-used term. Think of all those pretty LCD signs that used to adorn the bus stops in the centre of Exeter. Or the invitation to text a bus stop code to find out when you might be on your way. Sadly, all they told you was when the next bus was due, not when it was actually coming. New panels are now appearing, hopefully with real time information. Knowing when your bus or train is coming is key to encouraging people to rely on public transport.
Simple things, like tickets (or smart cards) that can be used on buses and trains. London’s Oyster Card is brilliant, and the challenge is to do it in a fragmented transport system like Devon’s. But it makes life easier, and making life easier is an important carrot to get people out of their private cars.
ECF are looking at these options, and more. They deserve encouragement, though they’ll need to carry people with them at the same time. The local authorities will need to open their minds to radical thinking and be prepared to take a few risks. Carefully chosen demonstration projects should help.
Nothing is straightforward. Devon is a large rural county. If you can make the train service from, say, Honiton to Exeter more attractive, how do you make it so compelling that people who have to drive from their rural homes to get to Honiton don’t just decide to carry on in the car to Exeter? Any answers?
Funding is the elephant in the room. I’ll look at this in future posts.
 This post draws shamlessly – and selectively – on two presentations by ECF. One by Glenn Woodcock, the CEO, to the Exeter Civic Society on 18 June; the other by Stephen Dunphy, the mobilty issues lead, at an ECF seminar on 23 June.